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Shaking Technology Forum

The “Forum Shaking Technology” is a collection of partner companies involved in different areas of the laboratory & biotechnology industry.

The forum is a helpful resource for users of shaken bioreactors, providing support, information and a publication database.

Any questions regarding shaken cultures that you send to the forum are automatically forwarded by “Dr Shaker” to the relevant specialist.

The publication database gives an overview of scientific papers concerned with shaken cultures (from microtiter plates up to the 1000L shaken bioreactor). There are now more than 1000 publications in the database which is continuously updated.

Dr. Shaker
Shaking Technology Forum


I want to cultivate Escherichia coli in a microtiter plate. Which conditions should I choose?

We would recommend utilizing 96-deepwell plates with a sterile barrier such as air-permeable sealing tape or a Duetz sandwich cover. The fill volume should be less than 500 µL to allow proper mixing and gas exchange. Safely secure the plates and shake with 50 mm orbit diameter at the speed of 300 rpm. With smaller orbit diameters, you could compensate by increasing the shaking speed.

For more information consider the following publication about gas-liquid mass transfer phenomena in microtiter plates:

Further questions about shaken bioreactors?

Visit the FAQ section of our Shaking Technology Forum.

How can evaporation loss in a microtiter plate be prevented?

Evaporation can be minimized by using an incubator shaker with active humidity control adjusted to 80–85 % humidity and by choosing the appropriate sterile barrier.

There are specially designed «Sandwich-Covers» available for different types of microtiter plates. They allow headspace refreshment rates of 1-2 culture volumes per minute, assuring sufficient oxygen supply, but limiting the evaporation to approximately 2% of the culture volume per day. This circumvents the need for air humidification in the incubator for most applications. Kuhner and EnzyScreen offer all types of sandwich covers and the appropriate clamp systems.

More information may be found in the following publication about evaluation of oxygen and water permeation through microplate sealing tapes:

Further questions about shaken bioreactors?

Visit the FAQ section of our Shaking Technology Forum.

Which filling volume should be selected for the cultivation of Escherichia coli in a 250 mL shake flask without baffles?

E. coli is a very respiratory active microorganism, so the filling volume should not exceed 5-10% of the total flask volume (i.e. 10-25 mL in a 250 mL flask). Recommended culture conditions for the aerobic cultivation of E. coli in a 250 mL wide neck flask with cotton plug are as follows:

  • 10 mL fill volume
  • 300 rpm shaking speed
  • 50 mm shaking diameter

Further questions about shaken bioreactors?

Visit the FAQ section of our Shaking Technology Forum.

Does the shaking diameter influence the cultivation in a shake flask?

Though seldomly noted in the literature, the shaking diameter exerts a major influence on the cultivation. Typically, raising the shaking diameter increases the mixing intensity and oxygen transfer rate (OTR).  In the case of viscous fermentation broths, a large shaking diameter (50 or 70 mm) also helps to maintain “in-phase” culture mixing.

You can find more information in the following publication about the gas-liquid mass transfer in shaking bioreactors:


For additional information on the oxygen transfer rate please check out our AppNotes:

OTR in shake flasks

Maximum Oxygen Transfer Capacity


Further questions about shaken bioreactors?

Visit the FAQ section of our Shaking Technology Forum.

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